Sogdian verb declension

Present

kunam – I do

kune

kunti, wēnt

kunēm

kunθa

kunand

 

Present Continuous

kunam-skun – I am doing; or kunam-štən(>Yaγnobi kunomišt)

kune-skun

kunti-skun

kunēm-skun

kunθa-skun

kunand-skun

 

Future

kunam-kām – I will do

kune-kām

kunti-kām

kunēm-kām

kunθa-kām

kunand-kām

 

Imperfect

kunu, wēn(u) – I did, I saw

kuni, wēn(i)

kuna, wēn

kunēm

kunta

kunand

 

Imperative

kuna, wēn  do!, see!

kunθa

 

Optative

kunē – that I do, dass ich mache or let me do

kunē

kunē

kunēmen

kunēθ

kunand

 

Subjuntive

kunan – I would do, ich wuerde machen

kuna

kunāt

kunēm

kunθa

kunand

 

Intransitive Pērfect

əktēm – I was made, I became

əktēš

əkti

əktēm

əktesθa

əktand

 

āγətēm  I came, ich bin gekomen

āγətēš

āγət

āγətēm

āγətesθa

āγətand

 

Transitive Perfect

əktu-δārəm – I have made, ich habe gemacht

əktu-δāre

əktu-δārt

əktu-δārēm

əktu-δārθa

əktu-δārənd

 

Plusquamperfect

əktu-δāru – I had made

əktu-δār

əktu-δār

əktu-δārēm

əktu-δārθa

əktu-δārənd

 

Stative Perfect(expresses state resulting from action rather than action itself)

əktē/əktəča ēm – I have been made(and I am now in this state)

əktē/əktəča ēš

əktē/əktəča əsti

əktēt ēm

əktēt əsθa

əktēt xand

 

āγətē ēm etc. – I have come(and I am now here)

āγətē ēš

āγətē əsti

āγətēt ēm

āγətēt əsθa

āγətēt xand

 

əktu-δārəm – I have made(and it is seen, visible, evident now)

əktu-δāre

əktu-δārt

əktu-δārēm

əktu-δārθa

əktu-δārənd

Yaghnobi verbal declension

Present-Future(I go, I will go, man merawam, man xoham raft)

 

šawómišt

šáwišt

šáwtišt, sháwči

 

šáwimišt

šáwtišt, šáwsišt

šawó(ri)št

Present Continuous(I am going, man rafta istodaam)

 

šáwakim ast

šáwakt ast

šáwakš ast

šáwakmox ast

šáwakšint ast

šáwakšint ast

 

Past Indefinite(I went, man raftam)

 

ašáwim

ašáwi

ašáw

 

ašawóm, ašawím

ašáwti, ašáwsi

ašawór

 

Past Continuous(I was going, I used to go, man meraftam, man rafta istoda budam)

 

ašáwimišt

ašáwišt

ašáwišt

 

ašawómišt, ašawímišt

ašáwtišt, ašáwsišt

ašawó(ri)št

 

Present Perfect(I have said, man guftaem)

 

wófta im

wófta išt

wófta xast, wóftax

 

wóft(a)om

wóft(a)ot

wóft(a)or

 

Past Perfect(I had said,gufta budaam)

 

wófta óyim

wófta oy,óyi

wófta oy, xoy

 

wófta íyom

wófta íyot

wófta íyor

•             

Past Perfect(I had said, gufta budam)

 

wófta vútaim

wófta vútaišt

wófta vútax

wófta vút(a)om

wófta vút(a)ot, vút(a)os

wófta vú(a)tor

 

Optative (I would go, that I go, man (bi)rawam)

 

šawóm

šaw

šawót

 

šawím

šawt, šaws

šawánt

 

Past Optative(that I had made, karda bosham)

 

íkta vom

íkta vu

íkta vot(i)

íkta vim

íkta vut

íkta vant

 

Potentialis(I can reach, man rasida metawonam)

 

rasta vómišt

rasta vušt

rasta vútišt, vúči, víči

 

rasta vímišt

rasta vútišt

rasta vo(ri)št, voyšt

 

 

Verb to be(there are two different verbs to be)

 

Present(I am, man hastam, man … –am)

-im

-išt

ast, -x, xast, asti, xasti

 

-om

-ot, -os

-or

 

(man mebosham)

vómišt

vušt

vútišt, vúči, víči, vut

 

vímišt

vútišt

vo(ri)št, voyšt

 

Past(I was. man budam)

 

óyim

oy(i)

oy, xoy

 

íyom

íyot

íyor

 

 

avím

aví

avú, aví

 

avóm, avím

avúti, avúsi, avísi

avór

 

 

(man budaam)

vútaim

vútaišt

vúta x(ast), víta (x)ast, vutáx, vítax

vút(a)om

vút(a)ot, vút(a)os

vút(a)or

 

Optative(that I be, man bosham)

 

vom

vu

vot(i)

vim

vut

vant

Sogdian nominal declension

Light stems

 

N. xō əspi – the horse

G. une/wine əspe

D. une/wine əspe

Acc. (ə)wu əspu

Instr.. δən əspa

Abl. čən əspa

Loc uya/wī əspya

Numerative. əspa

Voc. əspa

 

N. xā duγda – the daughter

G. uya/wī duγdya

D. uya/wī duγdya

Acc. wā duγda

Instr. une/wine/δən duγdya

Abl. une/wine/čən duγdya

Loc. uya/wī duγdya

Num. duγde

Voc. duγde

Plural

 

N. xā əspta – the horses

G. uya/wī əsptya

D. uya/wī əsptya

Acc. wā əspta

Instr. une/wine/δən əsptya

Abl. une/wine/čən əsptya

Loc. uya/wī əsptya

Voc. əspte

 

Heavy stems

 

N. xō δēw – the devil

G. une/wine δēwī

D. une/wine δēwī

Acc. (ə)wu δēw

Instr.. δən δēw(ī)

Abl. čən δēw(ī)

Loc uya/wī δēwī

Numerative. δēw

Voc. δēwa

 

N. xā strīč – the woman

G. uya/wī strīčī

D. uya/wī strīčī

Acc. wā strīč

Instr. une/wine/δən strīč(ī)

Abl. une/wine/čən strīč(ī)

Loc. uya/wī strīčī

Num. strīč

Voc. strīče

 

Plural

 

N. xā δēwt – the devils

G. uya/wī δēwtī

D. uya/wī δēwtī

Acc. wā δēwt

Instr. une/wine/δən δēwt(ī)

Abl. une/wine/čən δēwt(ī)

Loc. uya/wī δēwtī

Voc. δēwte

 

Vocal stems

 

N. xō xarγōšē – the rabbit

G. une/wine xarγōšē

D. une/wine xarγōšē

Acc. (ə)wu xarγōšē

Instr.. δən xarγōšē

Abl. čən xarγōšē

Loc uya/wī xarγōšē

Numerative. xarγōšē

Voc. xarγōšā

 

N. xā xānā – the house

G. uya/wī xānē

D. uya/wī xānē

Acc. wā xānā

Instr. une/wine/δən xānē/xānā

Abl. une/wine/čən xānē/xānā

Loc. uya/wī xānē

Num. xānā(?)

Voc. xānē(?)

 

N. xā əktyā – the action

G. uya/wī əktyā(yī)

D. uya/wī əktyā(yī)

Acc. wā əktyā

Instr. une/wine/δən əktyā(yī)

Abl. une/wine/čən əktyā(yī)

Loc. uya/wī əktyā(yī)

Num. əktyā(?)

 

Plural

 

N. xā xarγōšēt – the rabbits

G. uya/wī xarγōšētī

D. uya/wī xarγōšētī

Acc. wā xarγōšēt

Instr. une/wine/δən xarγōšēt(ī)

Abl. une/wine/čən xarγōšēt(ī)

Loc. uya/wī xarγōšētī

Voc. xarγōšēte

The Read Hat story in Kurdish(with grammatical analysis)

IZ – izafet marker(izafet is construction similar to Persian mard-e xûb, Kurdish however distinguishes masculine, feminine and plural )

M- masculine

F – feminine

OBL – oblique case

PL – plural

IMPF.PREf – imperfective prefix (di, analogous to Persian mê as in mê-konad)

CONJ.PREF – conjunctive prefix (bi, analogous to Persian be as in be-khwaanam)

1P, 2P, 3P – first person, second person, third person

ERG – ergative, when subject and object are inverted – subject is oblique case and object is indirect case (for the transitive verbs in past tenses)

COMP – comparative form of adjective

INTERJ, interjection

 

In the case Kurdish has a combination of preposition and postposition with a single meaning it is translated in this way – to1… to2, for1…. for2

 

If several grammatical or lexical formants are agglutinated (i.e. united in the way that they can be easily distinguished), they are connected with “minus” sign (-), but if two or more grammatical or lexical meanings are fusioned, it is they are marked by a single element that cannot be further analyzed or decomposed they will be connected in English translation by “plus” sign (+)

 

Text and sound for the story:

http://modersmal.skolverket.se/nordkurdiska/images/stories/nordkurdiska/cirok2004/kumsor.htm

 

hebû nebû keçeke biçûk hebû

was not-was girl-one-IZ.F small was

 

her tim kumekî sor li serê wê bû.

every time hat-one-IZ.M red on head-IZ.M her was

 

loma jê re digotin keça kumsor.

therefore to1+her to2  IMPF.PREF-said-3P.SG girl-IZ.DEF.F  hat-red

 

rojekê pîrika wê nexweş ketibû.

day-one-OBL grandmother-IZ.F her not-healthy fallen-was

 

diya wê selikek tijî xwarin kir û ew şand mala pîrka wê.

mother.IZ.F her basket-one full eating made and she(her) send house.IZ.F grandmother.IZ.F her

 

lê berî ku wê bişîne şîret lê kirin

but before that her CONJ.PREF. [would]send.3P.SG advice to+her made-3P.PL

 

nebe, nebe ku tu li nav daristanê bisekinî ha.

not-[would]-be, not-[would]-be that thou in middle forest-OBL.F stop-2P.SG

 

di nav daristanê de gur hene.

in1 middle forest.OBL.F in2 wolf(s) are

 

rast here ku gur neyên pêşiya te.

directly go that wolf(s) not-[would] come before-IZ.F. thee

 

keça kumsor soz da diya xwe ku ew di nav daristanê de nesekine.

girl.IZ.F hat-red promise gave mother-IZ.F. own that she in1 middle forest.IZ.F. in2 not-[would]-stop

 

wê selik girt û ber bi mala pîrika xwe ve meşiya.

she-ERG basket took and towards to1 house grandmother-IZ.F. own to2 walked

 

Di nav daristanê de rastî kulîlkên gelek xwaşik hat.

in1 middle forest in2 really flowers-IZ.PL very nice went(were)

 

soza ku dabû diya xwe ji bîr kir.

promise that given-was mother-IZ.F own from memory made

 

Sekinî û ji pîrika xwe re kulîlk berhev kirin.

stopped and for1 granmother-IZ.F. own for2 flower-[PL] together made-3PL(gathered)

 

hingê ji nav daran gurek derket.

then from middle trees-PL wolf-one out-came

 

gur bi rûyekî ken ber bi keça kumsor ve çû û got

wolf with face-one.IZ.M laughing towards to1 girl hat-red to2 went and said

 

rojbaş keça xweşik, tu vê sibê zû bi ku de diçî

day-good girl-IZ.F. nice thou this-OBL morning-OBL early to1 where to2 IMPF.PREF.go

 

dapîra min nexweş e.

mother-old-IZ.F me not-healthy is

 

ez diçim mala wê.

i IMPF.PREF.go house.IZ.F. her

 

dapîra te li ku ye

mother-old thee in where is

 

ew li paş wî girê han, di holika xwe de dijî

she in beyond this-OBL.M hill.IZ.M. this+very, in1 hut-IZ.F own in2 IMPF.PREF.lives

 

kêfa gur hat, şa bû, keçik li cih hişt û ber bi mala pîrê ve bazda.

appetite-IZ.F wolf came, happy became, girl in place left and towards to1 house-IZ.F. grandmother to2 ran

 

çû, çû û gihîşt ber mala pîrê û li derî xist.

went, went and reached towards house-IZ.F grandmother and into door beat

 

pîrê bi dengekî bilind got

grandmother with voice-one-IZ.M. high said

 

ew kî ye

that who is

 

gur dengê bi zarê keça kumsor kir û got

wolf voice-IZ.M. with language-IZ.M. girl-IZ.F. hat-red made and said

 

-eeee ez im ez, ez im pîrê.

eeee i am i, i am grandmother

 

ez keça kumsor im.

i girl-IZ.F. hat-red am

 

min ji te re xwarin anîye.

i-ERG for1 thee for2 eating brought-is

 

pîrê got, – derî vekirî ye, were hundir.

grandmother said – door open is, come inside

 

gur tavilê derî vekir û xwe avêt ser pîrê û bi carekê de daqurtand.

wolf immediately door opened and self threw on gransdmother and with1 time-one-OBL with2 swallowed

 

kincên pîrê li xwe kirin.

clothes.IZ.PL grandmother-OBL in oneself made-3PL

 

kete nav nivînên wê û li benda keça kumsor ma

fell inside bed-IZ.PL her and in waiting girl-IZ.F. hat-red remained

 

keça kumsor têra xwe kulîlk berhev kirin,

girl.IZ.F hat-red satisfaction-IZ.F own flower(s) together gathered-3PL

 

paşê kete rê û çû mala pîrika xwe.

afterwards fell road and went house-IZ.F grandmother own

 

dema ku gehîşt mala pîrikê, dît ku derî vekirî ye.

time that reached house-IZ.F grandmother-OBL, seen that door open is

 

ket hundir û deng li pîrika xwe kir û got

fell(entered) inside and voice to gramdmother-IZ.F own made and said

 

pîrê, diya min ji te re xwarin şandiye!

grandmother, mother-IZ.F my to1 you to2 eating send-is

 

gur bi zarê pîrê kir.

wolf with speech-IZ.M. grandmother made

 

min pir bêriya te kiriye.

me much longing-IZ.F you made-is

 

ka were, were cem min, bikeve nav nivinan.

ka(attention getting particle) come, come towards me, CONJ.PREF.fall(enter) middle bed.PL.OBL

 

keçikê selika xwarinê li ber serê pirê danî û ket hembêza wê.

girl-OBL(ERG) basket-IZ.F. eating-OBL to before head-IZ.M old+lady.OBL put and fell embrace-IZ.F her

 

destê xwe li ser rûyê pîrê gerand û pirsî

hand-IZ.M own on over face-IZ.M old+lady extended and asked

 

pîrê, guhên te çima weha mezin in

grandmother, ears.IZ.PL you why so big are

 

ji bo ku te baştir bibihîzim

for1 for2 that you good-COMP(better) CONJ.PREF.[would] hear-1P

 

çawên te çima weha mezin in

eyes.IZ.PL you why so big are

 

ji bo ku te baştir bibînim

for1 for2 that you good-COMP(better) CONJ.PREF.[would] hear.1P

 

pozê te çima weha mezin e

nose.IZ.PL you why so big is

 

ji bo ku te baştir bîhn bikim

for1 for2 that you good-COMP(better) smell CONJ.PREF.[would] make-1P

 

destên te çima weha mezin in

hands.IZ.PL you why so big are

 

ji bo ku te baştir hembêz bikim

for1 for2 that you good-COMP(better) embrace CONJ.PREF.[would] make.1P

 

devê te çima weha mezin e

mouth.IZ.M you why so big is

 

ji bo ku te bixwim.

for1 for2 that you CONJ.PREF.[would] eat.1P

 

gur keça kumsor jî bi carekê de daqurtand.

wolf girl-IZ.F hat-red also with1

 

zikê gur nepixî û di nav ciye pîrê de di xew re çû.

stomach-IZ.M wolf inflated and in1 middle place-IZ.M. grandmother in2 into1 sleep into2

 

hewqas pir xwaribû ku pife pif û xure xur pê ket.

somuch full eaten-was that puff puff and khurr khurr with+him went

 

lê şansê wan hebû ku nêçîrwanek di ber mala pîrê re derbas bû.

but chance-IZ.PL them was that hunter-one by1 before house.IZ.F. grandmother by2 passing was

 

çawa ku xure xura gur bihîst.

so that khurr khurr-IZ.F wolf heard

 

ber bi derî ve çû.

towards to1 door to2 went

 

derî vekirî bû.

door open was

 

hêdika çû hundir.

slowly went inside

 

dît ku gurek di nav nivînên pîrê de ye.

saw that wolf in1 middle bed-IZ.PL grandmother in2 is

 

zikê gur qelaşt, pîrê û keça kumsor jê derxistin.

stomach-IZ.M wolf split, grandmother and girl-IZ.F hat-red from-it went+out

 

dema ku keça kumsor ji zikê gur derkete, got

time that girl-IZ.F hat-red from stomach-IZ.M wolf went+out, said

 

oy, zikê gur çiqas tarî bû!

oy stomach-IZ.M wolf how+much dark was

 

nêçîrvan û pîrê ji keça kumsor re gotin

hunter and grandmother to1 girl-IZ.F hat-red to2 said.PL.3P

 

carek din bi ya mezinên xwe bike ha.

time-one other with those big(grown-up) own CONJ.PREF.do INTERJ

A text in Sogdian: Rustam, his horse and demons

First line is transliteration from Sogdian script, second is phonetical Sogdian transcription, third is literal word-for-word translation, the last is more anglicized translation

 

wrcwnkry’ xw δywt ywnyδ trš‘nt kw knδh s‘r

určōnkəryā xō δēwt yōnēθ təršant ku kənθī sār

by-miracle the dews at-once flē to city towards

…and miraculously the dews fled towards the city

 

‘xw rwstmy m‘yδ kw knδβr prm ‘škr‘k šw‘

xō rustami mēδ kū kənθβar pərəm əškərē šwa

the rustam then to towngate until following went

Rustam went as far as city gates, persecuting them

 

γrβ MN pršp‘r myr‘nt 1LPw  xršy‘kh β‘w‘nt ‘wyh

knδyh ZKw knδβrt βynt‘nt

γarβ čən pəršpār mīrant, ēw zār xəršē βāwant, təγətē wī kənθī, xō kənθβərt βēndand

many from trampling died one thousand dragging reach, enter the city, the city-gates lock

many died trampled down, one thousand of them proceeded dragging, entered into the city and locked city gates

 

zyw‘rt prw RBkw šyrn‘m šw‘ kw šyr‘kh wyšxwrt mnc‘y pyrδnn syxwy ‘spw prw wyš w‘c

zīwərt prō məzēx šīrnām šəwa ku šīrē wīšxurt mənčay pērδən sīxway aspu prō wēš wāč

returned wiθ great glory went to gōd pasture, stopped, saddle lifted, horse for grass allowed

Rustam went back with great glory, headed towards a good pasture, stopped, took away the saddle and the horse to graze grass

 

xwty mnšpn xwrt xwr‘ š‘twxw wβ‘ ‘nsp‘ pr‘yštrn nypδ ‘‘γ‘z ‘wβt

xōtē manšpən xurt xura šātūx uβa anspa pərīštərən nīpəδ āγāz uβd

self dismounted eating ate happy became rug spread lied-down started slēp

himself dismounted from the horse, ate his food, was happy, then he spread a rug, lied down and slept

 

xw δywt prw nβ‘yr prw ‘nst w‘št‘nt ‘yw δβty m‘yδ w‘β‘nt

xō δēwt prō niβēr prō anst wāštand ēw δiβdy mēδ wāβānd

the dews for council in great crowd stand one another thus said

Dews assembled in a large crowd for council, saying

 

RBkw šβ‘r MN m‘xw s‘r ktcnn ‘ywt‘c β‘r‘k ‘wy knδyh w‘n‘kw mnt‘xs‘ymnn kt‘r s‘tw myr‘ym ‘ny‘msym kt‘r ZKn xwt‘wty ZKw kynh xwz‘ym

məzēx šəfār čən māx kət-čən ēwtāč βārē wī kənθī wānō məndāxsēmən, kətār mirēm ənyāmsēm, kətār une xwatāwtī ‘wu kēnē xōžēm

great shame from us that from alone rider the city resort, either die be-finished either the overlords the revenge demand

It is big shame for as that we had to seek the refuge in the city from a lonely horseman, either we will die and be finished in such a way, or we will have to demand our overlords to revenge for us

 

‘xw δywt ”γ’znt pršt’t ‘kyty MN prtr kβnyxn prγt’k m’t’nt RBkw ‘nγ’w knδβrt pyn’nt

xō δēwt āγāzand pərštāt əkiti čən pərtər kəβnīxən pərγətē mātānd məzēxu ənγāw kənθβart pīnānd

the dews started prepare whoever from foremost, meager-remainder remained were great haste city-gates open

The dews started arrange the scanty remainder which remained from their superior manpower, in great haste opened the city gates

 

ZKw γrβw δrwnp’δ’k γrβ wrtnβ’r γrβw pyδh β’r’k γrβw yγn’ych β’r’k γrβ k’s β’r’k γrβ MN rwpsh β’r’k γrβ ‘kwty β’r’k γrβ prw kyrmw prw krps’k γrβ pδ’k γrβ ‘kyty xw mm’yδ prn”y’nn šw”y mkxw crks ‘txw krδβy γrβw ptkwn sry c’δr-s’r

məzēx γərβ δrōnpāδē γərβ wərtənβār γərβ pīδ βārē yaγnēč βārē γərβ kās βārē γrβ čən rupsa βārē γərb əkuti βārē γərβ prō kirmu prō kərpəsē γərβ əkiti xō mēδ pərnāyən šəwē məkxu cərkas ət-xō kurθβē γərβu pətkōn-sərē čāδər-sār

great many archer many charioteer many elephant rider, ?? rider, many pig rider, many from fox rider many dog rider many on snake on lizard whoever these then flying went like vulture somewhere many upside-down headed below towards

great lots of archers, lots of charioteers, many riders on elephant and on ??, many riding on foxes, dogs, snakes, lizards, many of them flied like vulture, some times head upside down

 

‘xw p’δt ‘sk’ys’r xr’yntn rwšnt RBkw zwrn’k syxw’y’nt w’r wβrh zyδnn RBkw twntr šyk’β’nt zwβ w’c’nt ”tr δβ’n pzty wytr’nt y’xy rwstmy prwyδ’k

xō pāδət əskēsār xrāyənd, rōšand zōrnē sīxwāyand wār, wafra, žēδən, məzēx tundər, šikāfand zōf, wāčānd ātər, wītərand yāxē rustami pərwēδē

the feet upwards, walked, roared, period raise rain, snow, θunder, hail, great θunder, opened jaws, released fire, went brave rustam seeking

and feet upwards, they walked, roared, threw rain, snow, hail, thunder, releasing fire from their opened jaws; thus they went, seeking the brave Rustam.

 

rtyms ”ys ‘xw βwδnβr’nn rxšy ZKw rwstmy wyγr’yš mnspt ‘xw rwstmy MN xwβn zγ’rt ptymync ZKw pwrδnk’ crm nγwδnn δrwnstn nyβ’ynt β’zγδ prw rxshw p’δβ’r kw δywt s’r c’n’kw ‘xw rwstmy MN δwr ZKw δyw ‘sp’δ wyn ZKn rxšy m’yδ w’β ”(ys) ZY βγ’ kβnw kβnw trš…

xw βōδənβərē raxši ‘wu rustami wīγrēš manspət xō rustami čən xuβn zəγārt pətīmēnč ‘wu purδank čərm nəγōδən δrōnastən nīβēnd βāžγēδ pro raxšu pāθβār ku δēwt sār cānō xō rustamy čən δūr ‘wu δēw ‘spāδ wēn xō raxši mēδ wāβ es əti-βγa kəβnu kəβnu tarš

And fragrant raxsh the rustam awoke, rose the rustam from sleep, quickly clothed the leopard skin clothing, quiver bound, mounted on raxsh hurried to dew direction when the rustam from remote the dew army saw, the raxsh thus spoke master come and little little flee…

Raxsh who had a fragrant smell awoke Rustam. Rustam rose from sleep, quickly put on his garment from leopard skin, attached quiver to his waist and hurried to the direction of the dews’ army. When from the distance he saw the army of dews, Raxsh spoke to him thus, “come and [pretend] to flee a little backwards…<>

 

wn’ym ktxw δywt kw mrx’ r’γ s’r rxšy ptysynt ywnyδ zyw’rt xw rwstmy

wənēm kət-xō δēwt kū mərxā rāγ sār. raxši patīsend. yōnēθ zīwart xō rustami

<>…fight if-the dews to straight plain towards. raxsh accepted. Immediately returned the rwstam

<>…fight if dews would go to the straight plain. Raxsh accepted. Rustam immediately came back.

 

c’n’kw  ‘xw δywt wyn’nt ywnyδ zγ’rt ZKw β’r’ycyk βr’p’š’nt wβyw xw pδ’k ‘sp’δ

čānō xō δēwt wēnand yōnēθ zəγart əwu βarēčīk frāpāšand uβiw xo pəδē ‘əspāδ

as-soon-as the dews saw at-once quickly the mounted hurl-forward both the foot army

As soon as the dews saw, they at once sent forwards both mounted and foot armies

 

‘yw δβty m’yδ w’β’nt ‘kδry ZKn srδ’nk’ xw myn’y ‘nxw’st ‘sk’tr ‘M m’xw ”x’ns L’ pršt’t βwt-k’m

ēw δiβdi mēδ wāβānd kəšē une sərθang xō mēnē ənxwāst əskātar δən māx āxāns nā pərštāt βōt-kām

one other speak now the leader the mind broke, more with us struggle not preparing be-will

They spoke one to another, “now his courage is broken, he will not seek struggle with us any more

 

šw kδ’c L’ w’c’yδ-k’m šw ms L’ ptxwyδ’ p’rZY m’yδ z.w’ntkw ‘ny’sδ’ ktšw ‘βzyw βr’s z.γw tr’nk’ ‘nšt’ymn

šu kəδāč nā-wācēθ-kām məs nā pətxwayθā mēδ žəwandē niyāsθā kət-šu aβziu frās žəγu trang ənštaymən

him ever not release-will but not kill thus living take that-him bad punishment severe torture show

Let not let him escape but also not kill him, let’s take him alive and subject him to horrible punishment and cruel torture

 

xw δywt ‘yw δβty šyr wys’yδ’nt sγtm’nn p’z.γyr’nt wytr’nt ZKw rwstmy ‘shkrcy

xō δēwt ēw δiβdy šīr wisēδānt səγdəmān pāžγērand wītərand əwu rustami əškərči

the dews one other much instigate all shout go the rustam persecute

So dews came to persecute Rustam, encouraging one another and shouting

 

wyδ’γty zyw’rt ‘xw rwstmy βr’ z’w’rt prw δywt mkxw δγ’n šrγw prw naxš’yr kt’r xw ‘βt’r prw rm’kw γyδh mkxw w’rγn’k prw xrγwš’k kt’r xw sykrn prw zδxh rtšn ”γ’z

wēδāγtē zīwart xō rustami βəra zūrt(?) pro δēwt məkxu dγān sharγ pro naxšīr kətār aβtār pro ramē γēθ məkxu wārəγnē pro xərγōšē kətār xō sīkrən pro zδaxa art-šen āγāz

this-time returned rustam bearing forces on dews like fiery lion on wildgoat or hyena on cattle flock like falcon on rabbit or eagle? on snake and-them started…

And this very moment Rustam went back. With all his force he threw upon dews like a fiery lion on a wild goat, or a hyena on a cattle flock, a falcon on a rabbit or an eagle(?) on a snake and he started them..

 

Pashto verbal declension in present tense

ze yem – I am

te ye – thou art

day dey – he is

daa da – she is

mu(n)gg yu – we are

taasi yaast/yey – you are

duy di – they are

 

 

I make, drink, write, know, strike

 

ze         kawém, chexxém, likém, pohéeggem, wahém

te         kawée. chexxée, likée, pohéeggee, wahée

day/daa kawí,   chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

mugg    kawú,   chexxú, likú, pohéeggu, wahú

táasi     kawéy. chexxéy, likéy, pohéeggey, wahéy

duy       kawí,    chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

 

I take, eat, see, speak, read

 

ze         axlém, xorém, winém, wáayem, lwálem

te         axlée, xorée, winée, wáayee, lwálee

day/daa axlí, xori, winí, wáayi, lwáli

mugg    axlú, xorú, winú, wáayu, lwálu

táasi     axléy, xoréy, winéy, wáayey, lwáley

duy       axlí, xorí, winí, wáayi, lwáli

 

Pashto noun declension

There are two grammatical genders in Pashto – masculine and feminine.

Pashto nouns are declined and have two cases – direct and oblique – in both singular and plural. For the most masculine nouns ending on consonant, the singular direct and oblique are the same. For the most of the nouns, it is singular oblique and plural direct which have the same form. The plural oblique is usually formed by adding –o to the final consonant of the plural direct, or if the direct plural ends in a vowel, changing this vowel into -o

Typical declensions

1) masculine nouns, mostly animate with plurals on –aan

Direct shaagérd(sg) – shagerdáan(pl) (student)

Oblique shaagérd – shagerdáano

dost – dostáan (friend)

dost – dostáano

halék – halekáan  (boy)

halék – halekáano

xarijí – xaarijiyáan (foreigner)

xarijí – xaarijiyáano

ashnáa – ashnaayáan(close friend)

ashnáa – ashnaayáano

leewé – leewáan (wolf)

leewé – leewáano

2) masculine nouns, mostly inanimate, with the plural ending –una

kor – korúna (house)

kor – korúno

laas – laasúna (hand)

laas – laasúno

kitáab – kitaabúna (book)

kitáab – kitaabúno

zangun – zanganúna (knee)

zangané – zanganúno

ghar – ghrúna  (mountain)

ghar – ghrúno

merré – merrúna (husband)

merré – merrúno

zre – zrúna (heart)

zre – zrúno (heart)

3) masculine nouns with ending – ay

sarráy   -sarrí (man)

sarrí – sarró, sarréyo

malgéray – malgéri   (friend)

malgéri – malgéro

psarláy – psarlí (spring – season)

psarlí – psarló

4) masculine with plural ending – gaan

maamáa – maamaagáan (uncle)

maamáa – maamaagáano

chaaqú – chaaqugáan (knife)

chaaqú – chaaqugáano

5) masculines with the plural in accented – e (only a few words)

xar – xre (donkey)

xre – xro

ghal – ghle (thief)

ghle – ghlo

shpun – shpaané (shepherd)

shpaané – shpaanó

paxxtun – paxxtaané (Pashtoon)

paxxtaané – paxxtaanó

Feminine

1) femminines with non accented –a(some of them have dropped –a)

xxédza – xxédzi (woman)

xxédzi – xxédzo

wrádz – wrádzi (day)

wrádzi – wrádzo

2) feminines with accented –á

shpa – shpe (night)

shpe – shpo

kottá – kotté (room)

kotté – kottó

3) feminines with –ey

njeléy – njeléy (girl)

njeléy – njeléyo

koranéy – koranéy (family)

koranéy – koranéyo

(grammar books mentions other plural forms for this type as well such as koraneygáane, koranyáane)

4) feminines(mostly abstract) ending on -í

baazí – baazéy

bazéy – baazéyo

5) feminines ending on accented –áa, -ó

tanxáa – tanxáawe, tanxaagáane (salary)

tanxáa – tanxáawo, tanxaagáano

ghwaa – ghwáawe, ghwaagáane (cow)

ghwaa – ghwáawo, ghwaagáano

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane (wish)

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane