Pashto verbal declension in present tense

ze yem – I am

te ye – thou art

day dey – he is

daa da – she is

mu(n)gg yu – we are

taasi yaast/yey – you are

duy di – they are

 

 

I make, drink, write, know, strike

 

ze         kawém, chexxém, likém, pohéeggem, wahém

te         kawée. chexxée, likée, pohéeggee, wahée

day/daa kawí,   chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

mugg    kawú,   chexxú, likú, pohéeggu, wahú

táasi     kawéy. chexxéy, likéy, pohéeggey, wahéy

duy       kawí,    chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

 

I take, eat, see, speak, read

 

ze         axlém, xorém, winém, wáayem, lwálem

te         axlée, xorée, winée, wáayee, lwálee

day/daa axlí, xori, winí, wáayi, lwáli

mugg    axlú, xorú, winú, wáayu, lwálu

táasi     axléy, xoréy, winéy, wáayey, lwáley

duy       axlí, xorí, winí, wáayi, lwáli

 

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Pashto noun declension

There are two grammatical genders in Pashto – masculine and feminine.

Pashto nouns are declined and have two cases – direct and oblique – in both singular and plural. For the most masculine nouns ending on consonant, the singular direct and oblique are the same. For the most of the nouns, it is singular oblique and plural direct which have the same form. The plural oblique is usually formed by adding –o to the final consonant of the plural direct, or if the direct plural ends in a vowel, changing this vowel into -o

Typical declensions

1) masculine nouns, mostly animate with plurals on –aan

Direct shaagérd(sg) – shagerdáan(pl) (student)

Oblique shaagérd – shagerdáano

dost – dostáan (friend)

dost – dostáano

halék – halekáan  (boy)

halék – halekáano

xarijí – xaarijiyáan (foreigner)

xarijí – xaarijiyáano

ashnáa – ashnaayáan(close friend)

ashnáa – ashnaayáano

leewé – leewáan (wolf)

leewé – leewáano

2) masculine nouns, mostly inanimate, with the plural ending –una

kor – korúna (house)

kor – korúno

laas – laasúna (hand)

laas – laasúno

kitáab – kitaabúna (book)

kitáab – kitaabúno

zangun – zanganúna (knee)

zangané – zanganúno

ghar – ghrúna  (mountain)

ghar – ghrúno

merré – merrúna (husband)

merré – merrúno

zre – zrúna (heart)

zre – zrúno (heart)

3) masculine nouns with ending – ay

sarráy   -sarrí (man)

sarrí – sarró, sarréyo

malgéray – malgéri   (friend)

malgéri – malgéro

psarláy – psarlí (spring – season)

psarlí – psarló

4) masculine with plural ending – gaan

maamáa – maamaagáan (uncle)

maamáa – maamaagáano

chaaqú – chaaqugáan (knife)

chaaqú – chaaqugáano

5) masculines with the plural in accented – e (only a few words)

xar – xre (donkey)

xre – xro

ghal – ghle (thief)

ghle – ghlo

shpun – shpaané (shepherd)

shpaané – shpaanó

paxxtun – paxxtaané (Pashtoon)

paxxtaané – paxxtaanó

Feminine

1) femminines with non accented –a(some of them have dropped –a)

xxédza – xxédzi (woman)

xxédzi – xxédzo

wrádz – wrádzi (day)

wrádzi – wrádzo

2) feminines with accented –á

shpa – shpe (night)

shpe – shpo

kottá – kotté (room)

kotté – kottó

3) feminines with –ey

njeléy – njeléy (girl)

njeléy – njeléyo

koranéy – koranéy (family)

koranéy – koranéyo

(grammar books mentions other plural forms for this type as well such as koraneygáane, koranyáane)

4) feminines(mostly abstract) ending on -í

baazí – baazéy

bazéy – baazéyo

5) feminines ending on accented –áa, -ó

tanxáa – tanxáawe, tanxaagáane (salary)

tanxáa – tanxáawo, tanxaagáano

ghwaa – ghwáawe, ghwaagáane (cow)

ghwaa – ghwáawo, ghwaagáano

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane (wish)

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane