A text in Sogdian: Rustam, his horse and demons

First line is transliteration from Sogdian script, second is phonetical Sogdian transcription, third is literal word-for-word translation, the last is more anglicized translation

 

wrcwnkry’ xw δywt ywnyδ trš‘nt kw knδh s‘r

určōnkəryā xō δēwt yōnēθ təršant ku kənθī sār

by-miracle the dews at-once flē to city towards

…and miraculously the dews fled towards the city

 

‘xw rwstmy m‘yδ kw knδβr prm ‘škr‘k šw‘

xō rustami mēδ kū kənθβar pərəm əškərē šwa

the rustam then to towngate until following went

Rustam went as far as city gates, persecuting them

 

γrβ MN pršp‘r myr‘nt 1LPw  xršy‘kh β‘w‘nt ‘wyh

knδyh ZKw knδβrt βynt‘nt

γarβ čən pəršpār mīrant, ēw zār xəršē βāwant, təγətē wī kənθī, xō kənθβərt βēndand

many from trampling died one thousand dragging reach, enter the city, the city-gates lock

many died trampled down, one thousand of them proceeded dragging, entered into the city and locked city gates

 

zyw‘rt prw RBkw šyrn‘m šw‘ kw šyr‘kh wyšxwrt mnc‘y pyrδnn syxwy ‘spw prw wyš w‘c

zīwərt prō məzēx šīrnām šəwa ku šīrē wīšxurt mənčay pērδən sīxway aspu prō wēš wāč

returned wiθ great glory went to gōd pasture, stopped, saddle lifted, horse for grass allowed

Rustam went back with great glory, headed towards a good pasture, stopped, took away the saddle and the horse to graze grass

 

xwty mnšpn xwrt xwr‘ š‘twxw wβ‘ ‘nsp‘ pr‘yštrn nypδ ‘‘γ‘z ‘wβt

xōtē manšpən xurt xura šātūx uβa anspa pərīštərən nīpəδ āγāz uβd

self dismounted eating ate happy became rug spread lied-down started slēp

himself dismounted from the horse, ate his food, was happy, then he spread a rug, lied down and slept

 

xw δywt prw nβ‘yr prw ‘nst w‘št‘nt ‘yw δβty m‘yδ w‘β‘nt

xō δēwt prō niβēr prō anst wāštand ēw δiβdy mēδ wāβānd

the dews for council in great crowd stand one another thus said

Dews assembled in a large crowd for council, saying

 

RBkw šβ‘r MN m‘xw s‘r ktcnn ‘ywt‘c β‘r‘k ‘wy knδyh w‘n‘kw mnt‘xs‘ymnn kt‘r s‘tw myr‘ym ‘ny‘msym kt‘r ZKn xwt‘wty ZKw kynh xwz‘ym

məzēx šəfār čən māx kət-čən ēwtāč βārē wī kənθī wānō məndāxsēmən, kətār mirēm ənyāmsēm, kətār une xwatāwtī ‘wu kēnē xōžēm

great shame from us that from alone rider the city resort, either die be-finished either the overlords the revenge demand

It is big shame for as that we had to seek the refuge in the city from a lonely horseman, either we will die and be finished in such a way, or we will have to demand our overlords to revenge for us

 

‘xw δywt ”γ’znt pršt’t ‘kyty MN prtr kβnyxn prγt’k m’t’nt RBkw ‘nγ’w knδβrt pyn’nt

xō δēwt āγāzand pərštāt əkiti čən pərtər kəβnīxən pərγətē mātānd məzēxu ənγāw kənθβart pīnānd

the dews started prepare whoever from foremost, meager-remainder remained were great haste city-gates open

The dews started arrange the scanty remainder which remained from their superior manpower, in great haste opened the city gates

 

ZKw γrβw δrwnp’δ’k γrβ wrtnβ’r γrβw pyδh β’r’k γrβw yγn’ych β’r’k γrβ k’s β’r’k γrβ MN rwpsh β’r’k γrβ ‘kwty β’r’k γrβ prw kyrmw prw krps’k γrβ pδ’k γrβ ‘kyty xw mm’yδ prn”y’nn šw”y mkxw crks ‘txw krδβy γrβw ptkwn sry c’δr-s’r

məzēx γərβ δrōnpāδē γərβ wərtənβār γərβ pīδ βārē yaγnēč βārē γərβ kās βārē γrβ čən rupsa βārē γərb əkuti βārē γərβ prō kirmu prō kərpəsē γərβ əkiti xō mēδ pərnāyən šəwē məkxu cərkas ət-xō kurθβē γərβu pətkōn-sərē čāδər-sār

great many archer many charioteer many elephant rider, ?? rider, many pig rider, many from fox rider many dog rider many on snake on lizard whoever these then flying went like vulture somewhere many upside-down headed below towards

great lots of archers, lots of charioteers, many riders on elephant and on ??, many riding on foxes, dogs, snakes, lizards, many of them flied like vulture, some times head upside down

 

‘xw p’δt ‘sk’ys’r xr’yntn rwšnt RBkw zwrn’k syxw’y’nt w’r wβrh zyδnn RBkw twntr šyk’β’nt zwβ w’c’nt ”tr δβ’n pzty wytr’nt y’xy rwstmy prwyδ’k

xō pāδət əskēsār xrāyənd, rōšand zōrnē sīxwāyand wār, wafra, žēδən, məzēx tundər, šikāfand zōf, wāčānd ātər, wītərand yāxē rustami pərwēδē

the feet upwards, walked, roared, period raise rain, snow, θunder, hail, great θunder, opened jaws, released fire, went brave rustam seeking

and feet upwards, they walked, roared, threw rain, snow, hail, thunder, releasing fire from their opened jaws; thus they went, seeking the brave Rustam.

 

rtyms ”ys ‘xw βwδnβr’nn rxšy ZKw rwstmy wyγr’yš mnspt ‘xw rwstmy MN xwβn zγ’rt ptymync ZKw pwrδnk’ crm nγwδnn δrwnstn nyβ’ynt β’zγδ prw rxshw p’δβ’r kw δywt s’r c’n’kw ‘xw rwstmy MN δwr ZKw δyw ‘sp’δ wyn ZKn rxšy m’yδ w’β ”(ys) ZY βγ’ kβnw kβnw trš…

xw βōδənβərē raxši ‘wu rustami wīγrēš manspət xō rustami čən xuβn zəγārt pətīmēnč ‘wu purδank čərm nəγōδən δrōnastən nīβēnd βāžγēδ pro raxšu pāθβār ku δēwt sār cānō xō rustamy čən δūr ‘wu δēw ‘spāδ wēn xō raxši mēδ wāβ es əti-βγa kəβnu kəβnu tarš

And fragrant raxsh the rustam awoke, rose the rustam from sleep, quickly clothed the leopard skin clothing, quiver bound, mounted on raxsh hurried to dew direction when the rustam from remote the dew army saw, the raxsh thus spoke master come and little little flee…

Raxsh who had a fragrant smell awoke Rustam. Rustam rose from sleep, quickly put on his garment from leopard skin, attached quiver to his waist and hurried to the direction of the dews’ army. When from the distance he saw the army of dews, Raxsh spoke to him thus, “come and [pretend] to flee a little backwards…<>

 

wn’ym ktxw δywt kw mrx’ r’γ s’r rxšy ptysynt ywnyδ zyw’rt xw rwstmy

wənēm kət-xō δēwt kū mərxā rāγ sār. raxši patīsend. yōnēθ zīwart xō rustami

<>…fight if-the dews to straight plain towards. raxsh accepted. Immediately returned the rwstam

<>…fight if dews would go to the straight plain. Raxsh accepted. Rustam immediately came back.

 

c’n’kw  ‘xw δywt wyn’nt ywnyδ zγ’rt ZKw β’r’ycyk βr’p’š’nt wβyw xw pδ’k ‘sp’δ

čānō xō δēwt wēnand yōnēθ zəγart əwu βarēčīk frāpāšand uβiw xo pəδē ‘əspāδ

as-soon-as the dews saw at-once quickly the mounted hurl-forward both the foot army

As soon as the dews saw, they at once sent forwards both mounted and foot armies

 

‘yw δβty m’yδ w’β’nt ‘kδry ZKn srδ’nk’ xw myn’y ‘nxw’st ‘sk’tr ‘M m’xw ”x’ns L’ pršt’t βwt-k’m

ēw δiβdi mēδ wāβānd kəšē une sərθang xō mēnē ənxwāst əskātar δən māx āxāns nā pərštāt βōt-kām

one other speak now the leader the mind broke, more with us struggle not preparing be-will

They spoke one to another, “now his courage is broken, he will not seek struggle with us any more

 

šw kδ’c L’ w’c’yδ-k’m šw ms L’ ptxwyδ’ p’rZY m’yδ z.w’ntkw ‘ny’sδ’ ktšw ‘βzyw βr’s z.γw tr’nk’ ‘nšt’ymn

šu kəδāč nā-wācēθ-kām məs nā pətxwayθā mēδ žəwandē niyāsθā kət-šu aβziu frās žəγu trang ənštaymən

him ever not release-will but not kill thus living take that-him bad punishment severe torture show

Let not let him escape but also not kill him, let’s take him alive and subject him to horrible punishment and cruel torture

 

xw δywt ‘yw δβty šyr wys’yδ’nt sγtm’nn p’z.γyr’nt wytr’nt ZKw rwstmy ‘shkrcy

xō δēwt ēw δiβdy šīr wisēδānt səγdəmān pāžγērand wītərand əwu rustami əškərči

the dews one other much instigate all shout go the rustam persecute

So dews came to persecute Rustam, encouraging one another and shouting

 

wyδ’γty zyw’rt ‘xw rwstmy βr’ z’w’rt prw δywt mkxw δγ’n šrγw prw naxš’yr kt’r xw ‘βt’r prw rm’kw γyδh mkxw w’rγn’k prw xrγwš’k kt’r xw sykrn prw zδxh rtšn ”γ’z

wēδāγtē zīwart xō rustami βəra zūrt(?) pro δēwt məkxu dγān sharγ pro naxšīr kətār aβtār pro ramē γēθ məkxu wārəγnē pro xərγōšē kətār xō sīkrən pro zδaxa art-šen āγāz

this-time returned rustam bearing forces on dews like fiery lion on wildgoat or hyena on cattle flock like falcon on rabbit or eagle? on snake and-them started…

And this very moment Rustam went back. With all his force he threw upon dews like a fiery lion on a wild goat, or a hyena on a cattle flock, a falcon on a rabbit or an eagle(?) on a snake and he started them..

 

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Pashto verbal declension in present tense

ze yem – I am

te ye – thou art

day dey – he is

daa da – she is

mu(n)gg yu – we are

taasi yaast/yey – you are

duy di – they are

 

 

I make, drink, write, know, strike

 

ze         kawém, chexxém, likém, pohéeggem, wahém

te         kawée. chexxée, likée, pohéeggee, wahée

day/daa kawí,   chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

mugg    kawú,   chexxú, likú, pohéeggu, wahú

táasi     kawéy. chexxéy, likéy, pohéeggey, wahéy

duy       kawí,    chexxí, likí, pohéeggi, wahí

 

I take, eat, see, speak, read

 

ze         axlém, xorém, winém, wáayem, lwálem

te         axlée, xorée, winée, wáayee, lwálee

day/daa axlí, xori, winí, wáayi, lwáli

mugg    axlú, xorú, winú, wáayu, lwálu

táasi     axléy, xoréy, winéy, wáayey, lwáley

duy       axlí, xorí, winí, wáayi, lwáli

 

Pashto noun declension

There are two grammatical genders in Pashto – masculine and feminine.

Pashto nouns are declined and have two cases – direct and oblique – in both singular and plural. For the most masculine nouns ending on consonant, the singular direct and oblique are the same. For the most of the nouns, it is singular oblique and plural direct which have the same form. The plural oblique is usually formed by adding –o to the final consonant of the plural direct, or if the direct plural ends in a vowel, changing this vowel into -o

Typical declensions

1) masculine nouns, mostly animate with plurals on –aan

Direct shaagérd(sg) – shagerdáan(pl) (student)

Oblique shaagérd – shagerdáano

dost – dostáan (friend)

dost – dostáano

halék – halekáan  (boy)

halék – halekáano

xarijí – xaarijiyáan (foreigner)

xarijí – xaarijiyáano

ashnáa – ashnaayáan(close friend)

ashnáa – ashnaayáano

leewé – leewáan (wolf)

leewé – leewáano

2) masculine nouns, mostly inanimate, with the plural ending –una

kor – korúna (house)

kor – korúno

laas – laasúna (hand)

laas – laasúno

kitáab – kitaabúna (book)

kitáab – kitaabúno

zangun – zanganúna (knee)

zangané – zanganúno

ghar – ghrúna  (mountain)

ghar – ghrúno

merré – merrúna (husband)

merré – merrúno

zre – zrúna (heart)

zre – zrúno (heart)

3) masculine nouns with ending – ay

sarráy   -sarrí (man)

sarrí – sarró, sarréyo

malgéray – malgéri   (friend)

malgéri – malgéro

psarláy – psarlí (spring – season)

psarlí – psarló

4) masculine with plural ending – gaan

maamáa – maamaagáan (uncle)

maamáa – maamaagáano

chaaqú – chaaqugáan (knife)

chaaqú – chaaqugáano

5) masculines with the plural in accented – e (only a few words)

xar – xre (donkey)

xre – xro

ghal – ghle (thief)

ghle – ghlo

shpun – shpaané (shepherd)

shpaané – shpaanó

paxxtun – paxxtaané (Pashtoon)

paxxtaané – paxxtaanó

Feminine

1) femminines with non accented –a(some of them have dropped –a)

xxédza – xxédzi (woman)

xxédzi – xxédzo

wrádz – wrádzi (day)

wrádzi – wrádzo

2) feminines with accented –á

shpa – shpe (night)

shpe – shpo

kottá – kotté (room)

kotté – kottó

3) feminines with –ey

njeléy – njeléy (girl)

njeléy – njeléyo

koranéy – koranéy (family)

koranéy – koranéyo

(grammar books mentions other plural forms for this type as well such as koraneygáane, koranyáane)

4) feminines(mostly abstract) ending on -í

baazí – baazéy

bazéy – baazéyo

5) feminines ending on accented –áa, -ó

tanxáa – tanxáawe, tanxaagáane (salary)

tanxáa – tanxáawo, tanxaagáano

ghwaa – ghwáawe, ghwaagáane (cow)

ghwaa – ghwáawo, ghwaagáano

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane (wish)

arzó – arzówe. arzogáane